2.9. Combining Input and Output

2.9.1. Reading from the Keyboard

If you want users to type something at the keyboard, you should let them know first! The jargon for this is to give them a prompt: Instructions written to the screen, something like

Console.Write("Enter your name: ");

Then the user should respond. What the user types is automatically shown (echoed) in the terminal or console window. For a program to read what is typed, another function in the Console class is used: Console.ReadLine.

Here the data for the function comes from a line typed at the keyboard by the user, so there is no need for a parameter between the parentheses: Console.ReadLine(). The resulting sequence of characters, typed before the user presses the Enter (Return) key, form the string value of the function. Syntactically in C#, when a function with a value is used, it is an expression in the program, and the expression evaluation is the value produced by the function. This is the same as in normal use of functions in math.

With any function producing a value, the value is lost unless it is immediately used. Often this is done by immediately assigning the value to a variable like in

string name;
name = Console.ReadLine();

or in the shorter

string name = Console.ReadLine();

Fine point: Notice that in most operating systems you can edit and correct your line before pressing the Return key. This is handy, but it means that the Return key must always be pressed to signal the end of the response. Hence a whole line must be read, and there is no function Console.Read(). Just for completeness we mention that you can read a raw single keystroke immediately (no editing beforehand). If you want to explore that later, see test_readkey/test_readkey.cs.

2.9.2. Numbers and Strings of Digits

You may well want to have the user supply you with numbers. There is a complication. Suppose you want to get numbers and add them. What happens with this code, in bad_sum/bad_sum.cs?

using System;

class BadSum
   static void Main()
      string s, t, sum;
      Console.Write ( "Enter an integer: ");
      s = Console.ReadLine();
      Console.Write( "Enter another integer: ");
      t = Console.ReadLine();
      sum = s + t;
      Console.WriteLine("They add up to " + sum);

Here is a sample run:

Enter an integer: 23
Enter another integer: 9
They add up to 239

C# has a type for everything and Console.ReadLine() gives you a string. Adding strings with + is not the same as adding numbers!

We must explicitly convert the strings to the proper kind of number. There are functions to do that: int.Parse takes a string parameter that should be the characters in an int, like “123” or “-25”, and produces the corresponding int value, like 123 or -25. In good_sum/good_sum.cs, we changed the names to emphasize the type conversions:

using System;

class GoodSum
   static void Main()
      Console.Write ( "Enter an integer: ");
      string xString = Console.ReadLine();
      int x = int.Parse(xString);
      Console.Write( "Enter another integer: ");
      string yString = Console.ReadLine();
      int y = int.Parse(yString);
      int sum = x + y;
      Console.WriteLine("They add up to " + sum);

Notice that the values calculated by int.Parse for the strings xString and yString are immediately remembered in assignment statements. Be careful of the distinction here. The int.Parse function does not magically change the variable xString into an int: the string xString is unchanged, but the corresponding int value is calculated, and gets assigned to an int variable, x.

Note that this would not work if the string represents the wrong kind of number, but there is an alternative:

csharp> string s = "34.5";
csharp> int.Parse(s);
System.FormatException: Input string was not in the correct format ....
csharp> double.Parse(s);

We omitted the long tail of the error message. There is no decimal point in an int. You see the fix with the corresponding function that returns a double.

2.9.3. Example Projects and the Source Repository

We have started to refer to whole programs that we have written. You will want to have your own copies to test and modify for related work.

All of our examples are set up in a Xamarin Studio solution in our zip file that you can download.

The zip file and the folder it unzips to have the long name introcs-csharp-examples-master. We suggest you rename the folder simply examples to match the name of the Xamarin Studio solution it contains.

There are various way to access our files.

  1. One way is to look at individual files from your download under our examples directory.
  2. If you open the examples solution in Xamarin Studio, you can select files from the Solutions pad. (Instructions are in the next section.)
  3. In the notes we refer to individual code file names that are hyperlinked. They link to the latest version in our online source repository. You get a display of color-coded web page with numbered lines. If you want to adapt a chunk, you can select it, and copy. If you want to copy all of a large file, your editing shortcuts for Select All do not work: You get a bunch of extra html. An alternative is to click the Raw button in the web page to the left above the source code. That brings up a plain text page with just the code. You can either download it or select all of it, and you only get the code.

We have one main convention in naming our projects: Most projects are examples of full, functional programs to run. Others are intended to be copied by you as stubs for your solutions, for you to elaborate. These project folders all end with “_stub”, like string_manip_stub. Even the stubs can be compiled immediately, though they may not accomplish anything.

A further convention is using “chunk” comments inside example source files: To keep the book and the source code in sync, our Sphinx building routine directly uses excerpts from the exact source code that is in the examples download. We have to mark the limits of the excerpts that we want for the book. Our convention is to have a comment referring to the beginning or the end of an excerpt “chunk”. Hence a comment including “chunk” in a source file is not intended as commentary on the code, but merely a marker for automatically regenerating a revision of the book.

2.9.4. Running our Xamarin Studio Examples Solution

If you are just starting Xamarin Studio, and you have not run our solution before:

  1. On the Welcome screen select the button Open Solution or File.
  2. You get an open-file dialog. Navigate to our example solution. (It must be unzipped already! We assume you renamed the folder examples.)
  3. Select examples/examples.sln.

The next time you come to the Welcome screen, our examples should be listed in the Recent Projects, and you can click to open it directly.

2.9.5. Copying and Modifying Our Example Xamarin Studio Projects

We strongly encourage you not to modify our examples in place, if you want to keep the changes, because we will make additions and modifications to our source download, and we would not want you to overwrite any of your modified files after downloading a later version of the examples.

If you do want to alter our code, we suggest you copy it to a project in your solution (“work”, discussed in the first lab in the Steps).

  1. Open your solution.
  2. Create a new project, maybe with the same name as the one we had. If it was a “_stub” project, remove the “_stub” from your project’s name.
  3. In the Solution Pad open the menu on the new project, select, Add, and then in the further submenu, select Add Files....
  4. This brings up an operating system open-file dialog. Switch folders into our example projects. Select the files you want to copy. (It makes things easier if you put the examples folder right beside your work folder.)
  5. A further dialog window pops up, with the choice Copy selected. Click to approve copy (as opposed to move or link).
  6. Now the desired files should appear in your project, along with the unfortunate default Program.cs. If you have not already deleted Program.cs, as described in Steps, do it now.
  7. If you intended to copy everything for a project, test by running the project. Even our stub projects should compile, though a stub project may not do anything when you run it until you add your own code to it. To make successful incremental additions, it is always good to start from something that compiles!

When creating modifications of previous examples, like the exercise below, you can often save time by copying in the related example, particularly avoiding retyping the standard boiler plate code at the top. However, when you are first learning and getting used to new syntax, typing reinforces learning. Perhaps after looking over the related example, you are encouraged to write your version from scratch, to get used to all the parts of the code. Later, when you can produce such text automatically, feel free to switch to just copying from a place that you had it before. Interview Exercise/Example

Write a program that prompts the user for a name (like Elliot) and a time (like 10AM) and prints out a sentence like:

Elliot has an interview at 10AM.

If you are having a hard time and want a further example, or want to compare to your work, see our solution, interview/interview.cs. Exercise for Addition

Write a version, add3.cs, that prompts the user for three numbers, not necessarily integers, and lists all three, and their sum, in similar format to good_sum/good_sum.cs. Exercise for Quotients

Write a program, quotient.cs, that prompts the user for two integers, and then prints them out in a sentence with an integer division problem like

The quotient of 14 and 3 is 4 with a remainder of 2.

Review Division and Remainders if you forget the integer division or remainder operator.